September 28, 2009

Study shows more corn for biofuels would hurt water

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - More of the fertilizers and pesticides used to grow corn would find their way into nearby water sources if ethanol demands lead to planting more acres in corn, according to a Purdue University study.

The study of Indiana water sources found that those near fields that practice continuous-corn rotations had higher levels of nitrogen, fungicides and phosphorous than corn-soybean rotations. Results of the study by Indrajeet Chaubey, an associate professor of agricultural and biological engineering, and Bernard Engel, a professor and head of agricultural and biological engineering, were published in the early online version of The Journal of Environmental Engineering.

"When you move from corn-soybean rotations to continuous corn, the sediment losses will be much greater," Chaubey said. "Increased sediment losses allow more fungicide and phosphorous to get into the water because they move with sediment."

Nitrogen and fungicides are more heavily used in corn crops than soybeans, increasing the amounts found in the soil of continuous-corn fields. Sediment losses become more prevalent because tilling is often required in continuous-corn fields, whereas corn-soybean rotations can more easily be no-till fields, Engel said.

"The common practice is there is a lot of tillage to put corn back on top of corn," Engel said. "Any time we see changes in the landscape, there is a potential to see changes in water quality."

Chaubey said there was no significant change in the amount of atrazine detected in water near fields that changed to continuous-corn rotations. The commonly used pesticide sticks to plant material and degrades in sunlight, keeping it from reaching water through runoff or sediment.

U.S. Department of Agriculture data has shown that corn acreage has increased with the demand for ethanol, with 93 million acres in 2007, an increase of 12.1 million acres that year.

"As we look forward here, if corn stover is going to be a preferred bio-feedstock, we would see more corn acreage being planted," Engel said. "We need to know how that will affect water quality."

The USDA and Purdue funded the study. Chaubey and Engel are expanding their research to Iowa, Tennessee and Arkansas. That three-year study will include impacts of various biofeedstock, such as switch grass, and developing management practices to reduce sediment, nutrient and pesticide losses.

Writer: Brian Wallheimer, 765-496-2050, bwallhei@purdue.edu

Sources:   Indrajeet Chaubey, 765-494-5013, ichaubey@purdue.edu

Bernard Engel, 765-494-1162, engelb@purdue.edu

Ag Communications: (765) 494-8415;
Steve Leer, sleer@purdue.edu
Agriculture News Page


ABSTRACT

Water Quality Impacts of Corn Production to Meet Biofuel Demands

Mark A. Thomas, Bernard A. Engel and Indrajeet Chaubey

The overall goal of this project was to quantify the long-term water quality impacts of land management changes associated with increased demands for corn as a transportation biofuel feedstock in the United States. A modeling approach that considers a nonpoint source model, GLEAMS-NAPRA, was used to simulate annual losses in runoff, percolation, erosion, nitrate-nitrogen, total phosphorus, atrazine (1-chloro-3-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-2,4,6-triazine) and pyraclostrobin (Methyl {2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol - 3 - yloxymethyl] phenyl} methoxycarbamate) to the edge-of-field and bottom-of-root-zone associated with multiple cropping scenarios. Model results for representative soils, throughout Indiana, were analyzed to determine 10% (worst-case) and 50% (average-case) probability of exceedence in the aforementioned water quality indicators. Modeling results indicated significant differences (p<0.05) in water quality indicators between continuous-corn and corn-soybean rotations. The results showed that agricultural management decisions would have greater impacts on nutrient, runoff, erosion and pesticides losses from agricultural fields compared to water quality indicators associated with the projected changes in crop rotation systems. The model results point to the need for additional research to fully understand the water impacts of land management decisions associated with corn grain as a feedstock for biofuel production.


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